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Large Dog Breeds: Caring for Gentle Giants

Whether a dog breed is ‘large’ depends on whom you ask: Dog owners and non-dog owners may have differing opinions, and a veterinarian could offer up another suggestion entirely. But generally, a dog is considered large if he weighs more than 55 pounds. Height-wise, most people consider a dog taller than 20 inches at the shoulder to be large, but height and weight don’t always match up—some hefty breeds are short and stocky, so height isn’t the sole indicator of a dog’s size classification.

Some large dog breeds include:

  • Labrador Retriever
  • German Shepherd
  • Golden Retriever
  • Boxer
  • Afghan Hound
  • Australian Shepherd
  • Bulldog
  • English Foxhound
  • Pointer

Border Collies, Goldendoodles, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Standard Poodles are breeds that may be considered medium or large, depending on individual traits or adult weight. Additionally, males in a specific breed may be much larger than females, so an individual from the breed may fall on either end of the large dog continuum—in which case, you can at least get an idea of average size based on the breed standard.

A weight heavier than 70 pounds tips a dog closer to the extra-large category. This is where Great Danes, St. Bernards, Rottweilers, and Great Pyrenees land.

Large Dogs From Around the World

The Labrador Retriever is top dog in the United States, but other large breeds from around the world include:

  • The Akita  a large dog breed from the mountainous regions of Northern Japan that consistently ranks among the AKC’s top 50 breeds
  • The Neapolitan Mastiff – an ancient giant breed with roots in Southern Italy
  • The Chow Chow – a large breed that originated in ancient Northern China and Mongolia as a hunting companion and royal kennel favorite, known for its fluffy fur and wrinkled skin
  • The Dalmatian – named for the Dalmatia region of Croatia—an area where this breed may have originated—and still ranking as one of Croatia’s most popular breeds
  • The Rhodesian Ridgeback – a member of the hound group and originating in southern Africa, most often used for tracking and protection
  • The Black Russian Terrier – developed as a military protection canine and patrol dog in the 1930s by the Soviet government—and now, a smart working dog who makes a fine partner for highly experienced dog owners
  • The Leonberger – a breed developed in Germany and a popular choice among members of royal families, composers, and as a farm and field working breed

Large Dog Breed Care

The larger the canine, the larger the supplies. Big dogs need big dog beds that offer plenty of pressure relief and support for joints and muscles. Memory foam is a preferred option for the big dog: It conforms to your dog’s shape to cradle him comfortably, taking the pressure off his joints.

When it comes to walking your big pal, a properly fitted large breed dog harness may provide more control than a collar and leash alone, especially for a puller. Choose one that fits comfortably, and consider an option designed to double as a car restraint system to keep your big dog from becoming a big distraction when you’re behind the wheel.

Dog care is about more than supplies alone—there are health and safety considerations, too:

  • Large breeds may ‘counter surf,’ which puts them at risk of eating something that could make them ill.
  • Stairs can be difficult for large dogs, especially as they get older.
  • Heavy activity, especially in puppies and young, developing dogs, puts big breeds at risk for bone or joint injuries.
  • Travel may be easier with a more compact breed—consider how you’ll transport your dog safely, and whether there’s room for him to accompany you in the vehicle.
  • Athletic large breeds may scale or leap fences to go exploring.
  • Common health concerns for large breed dogs include obesity, bloat, arthritis, joint issues, hip dysplasia, thyroid problems, and a shorter lifespan.
  • In many cases, larger breeds are more expensive to care for: They require more food, their vet bills and grooming costs may be higher, and medications or treatments administered by weight can be pricier.

What to Feed a Large Breed Dog

Feeding your large breed dog a specially formulated food from puppyhood can help him as he grows; these special preparations meet the unique needs of large breeds. Adjustments for calcium, caloric, and fat content help reduce orthopedic issues and prevent excessive weight gain in big breeds. Because large breed dogs have specific nutritional needs, feeding a small breed food isn’t recommended—small dogs need more calories and fat, which can exacerbate weight or growth problems in your large breed dog.

Puppyhood lasts longer for large breed dogs—physical growth and mental development phases stretch beyond a year for larger dogs. This means veterinarians often recommend that you feed a large breed dog puppy formula longer than you might a smaller breed.

Clipping a Large Dog’s Nails

Overgrown nails can cause discomfort or pain in any dog, but the larger the dog, the bigger the problem. Clipping a large dog’s nails can be a different kind of problem. While part of the issue lies in the size—juggling fur and pounds while clipping can be a full-body workout—there are other concerns. If your big dog is nervous or doesn’t like having his paws touched, however friendly he is, you may be putting yourself at risk.

Trimming your large dog’s nails comes down to patience and training. Take it slow, offer lots of praise, and settle for a paw per session if that’s all you can get. While nervous dogs may be desensitized over time, some dogs may require a vet visit and sedation for a proper nail  trim.

What Is the Longest Living Large Dog Breed?

While larger dogs tend to have shorter lifespans, a few big breeds tend to live longer. Belgian Shepherds may live up to 14 years, Standard Poodles up to 15, and Pointers up to 17 years. Other long-lived large breeds include:

  • Afghan Hound (12 to 14 years)
  • Alaskan Malamute (10 to 12 years)
  • Labrador Retriever (10 to 14 years)
  • Schnauzer (Giant, 12 to 15 years, )
  • Weimaraner (11 to 14 years)

What Large Dog Breed Is Right for Me?

Bringing a large dog into the family pays off—big-time. Start out on the right paw when you choose a breed with qualities that suit your lifestyle. People who prefer to keep dog hair and drool to a minimum aren’t a likely match for a Newfie, but the short-coated, less drooly Airedale Terrier may be an option. But choosing a big dog is about more than whether they shed or drool. Each type was bred for a purpose. Learn about each breed, what to expect regarding trainability, and how much exercise they need. Some large breeds need an hour or more of high-impact exercise each day, while others prefer a nap to a game of fetch.

If you live in a cold climate, consider the accommodations you’ll need to make for breeds sensitive to the cold, or choose a breed built for freezing temperatures or blowing snow. Hot climates aren’t ideal for dogs prone to overheating—large, hairy, brachycephalic breeds like the Chow, tend to fall into this category.

Rare Large Dog Breeds

A lot of rare large dog breeds have two things in common: They are rare for a reason, and they are large for a reason.

Often a breed is rare because it needs a specialized set of conditions to thrive: a copious amount of exercise every day to prevent destructive behaviors, perhaps, or near-constant human companionship to prevent howling and distress. Assertive breeds might need experienced owners; standoffish breeds might need five-star socialization. Shedders and droolers might need unfussy housekeepers. Size is usually a magnifier: A large and drooly dog will produce much more drool than a small and drooly one. And temperament concerns are much more pressing with a 150-pound dog than with a 15-pound one.

Rare breeds tend to be large because they’re often developed for a specific purpose like guarding or herding—tasks made easier with size on their side. Work-based traits like the ability to pull, to look imposing, or a penchant for search and rescue are uncommon in little breeds—a fifteen-pounder isn’t a likely lifeguard, nor would wolves hesitate to take on a tiny terrier when a meal was at stake. Bigger breeds are stronger, tougher, and more likely to leave a predator or burglar thinking twice.

The same traits that make a large dog breed rare in America also tend to make it rare in other Western countries, like Canada and Great Britain. But while rare breeds might not be suitable for a wide variety of homes, where they do suit, they can make wonderful companions, athletes, or working dogs. Let’s take a look at some rare large dog breeds in America, and what kinds of living situations might be great for them.

Large White Flock Guarding Breeds

A lot of rare, large, white dog breeds are flock guards. Many of the rare dog breeds in this group are extra large. As a general rule, flock guards are the essence of “large for a reason” and “rare for a reason:” Their substantial size helps them protect flocks against predators. So, sure, they may be indispensable for raising alpacas. But how many pet households are up for an animal bred to fight off wolves? Not a lot, and that’s why they’re rare.

Backgrounds and temperaments within this group vary, and some flock guardians have found a place in American homes and farms. The Great Pyrenees, for example, can make a calm, self-assured pet for experienced owners ready for a large dog. But most flock guarding breeds are rare in the United States. They need a flock to guard, and there simply is not a strong enough demand for their services to make them populous here.

Rare flock guarding breeds not recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) include:

  • Akbash: At 75 to 140 pounds, this Turkish livestock guardian is an imposing dog. He is generally low-energy but said to “sleep with one eye open.”
  • Bucovina Shepherd Dog: A Romanian flock guard that ranges from 110 to 200 pounds; dogs can be white with patches of grey, black, or black with red-fawn reflections. Bucovinas are strongly mistrustful of people they don’t know.
  • Kuchi, aka Afghan Shepherd: A fierce, high-stamina, independent livestock guardian weighing 85 to 175 pounds. Not well suited for life as a pet in the West.
  • Maremma Sheepdog: A large, white Italian flock guard averaging 66 to 100 pounds. A superb livestock and farm guard, but the breed club does not recommend it as a pet.
  • Polish Tatra Sheepdog: Mature dogs weigh between 80 and 130 pounds. They have an imposing bark, and they’ll bark at anything they find suspicious. (That’s a big dog with a lot of barking.)

Special considerations: Livestock guardians are bred to protect their flocks without checking in with a person. While this trait is fantastic on the steppes, mountains, and in the deserts where these dogs originated, it is an enormous potential liability in more populous settings. The meter reader, the UPS driver, the propane delivery person, the plumber, Aunt Edna, and the people coming over for dinner each represent an opportunity for a large livestock guarding dog’s judgment to differ from yours—and he won’t be wondering what your opinion is. (Or, for that matter, what your liability insurance is like.)

Protection comes naturally to these dogs, but training for anything else can be slow going. Patience and persistence are key.

Good for: Generally, guarding flocks. There are easier breeds for other purposes.

Otterhounds

The huge and hilarious Otterhound is one of the rarest dog breeds in the world. With a population of fewer than 800, the Otterhound is rarer than the Giant Panda.

Otterhounds were developed in 12th century England to help control the population of otters, which preyed on fish in stocked ponds. Weighing in between 80 and 115 pounds, the Otterhound is a rare and extra-large dog breed. (Their size is one factor that keeps them rare.)

But while their size fills the house with dog, it’s their personality that fills the house with laughter. The breed standard calls for Otterhounds to be “amiable, boisterous and even tempered” dogs. The nasally gifted, friendly, and even-keeled Otterhound is well suited for people interested in tracking, Search and Rescue, therapy work, or simply a shaggy, clownish, intelligent companion.

Special considerations: As scent hounds, these dogs will often experience nasal-induced deafness when let off leash, so a fenced area for exercise is a must. Otterhounds love water and will sometimes submerge their entire heads to drink—even in a bowl. (You’ll need some towels.) Their size makes early training a must, and training Otterhounds requires a confident, patient, and positive touch. They can be both stubborn and sensitive. But when training is fun and they are praised for their good work, these dogs’ class-clown personalities truly shine.

Good for: Experienced dog owners who love to laugh, have room for a large dog, and also have access to (ohboyohboyohboy) water.

Bergamasco Sheepdogs

This rare herding breed is intelligent, gentle, and self-sufficient. Bergamascos typically weigh about 55 to 85 pounds.

If you own a Bergamasco, though, you won’t be fielding a lot of questions about his temperament and size. People will be asking you about his coat. Some call the Bergamasco “the shaggiest dog in the world.” His coat drapes in flat mats or locks—slightly different from the cords on a Komondor or Puli, which are round.

Special considerations: Bergamasco puppies are born with typical canine hair coats. At about one year, the hair type that can form locks starts to grow in. At that stage, you must spend a few hours separating the coat into mats. After that, the coat requires little maintenance—it doesn’t shed, and no brushing or clipping is required.

The AKC recognized Bergamascos in 2015; their popularity in this country is growing. But they still rank in the bottom ten AKC breeds for popularity.

Good for: Experienced owners prepared to socialize and train a large dog with his own thoughts. (Fans of instant and unquestioning obedience should look elsewhere.) With proper socialization, Bergamascos tend to get along well with kids and other pets.

Newfoundlands

Newfoundlands are indeed large—they weigh between 100 and 150 pounds—but they are not rare. In fact, they rank in the top 25 percent in popularity among AKC breeds. They are probably among the least rare large black dog breeds. But confusion persists about “rare types of Newfoundland.”

The So-Called Rare Newfoundland Dog Breed

People wondering about rare Newfoundlands are usually thinking of one of two things: Landseers, or an internet hoax about bear hunting.

The AKC recognizes the Landseer as a Newfoundland with a black and white coat. But the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), an international confederation of kennel clubs, recognizes the Landseer as its own breed with a slightly different coat structure than the Newfoundland. So whether the Landseer is a type of Newfoundland or its own breed depends on whom you ask.

Now, to the bear hunting. Every so often a picture of “a rare type of Newfoundland bred to hunt bears” makes the rounds in online media. In the picture, forced perspective makes the dog—a Newfoundland—look enormous, and the person standing next to it look small. The dog is elevated on an exam table, and is so far in the foreground its front feet aren’t visible in the photo. The person is much farther from the camera, by the dog’s back hip.

Newfoundlands are gentle giants bred for water work. According to the breed standard, “sweetness of temperament” is the single most important trait of the breed. The idea of repurposing Newfies to hunt bears is puzzling and laughable.

Special considerations:  Newfs are giant, voluminous of coat, and deeply muzzled (which leads to plenty of drool, especially in the heat).

Good for: Fairly active people ready for an extra-large companion. Newfies need daily exercise, and their size makes training a must. But they are affectionate, eager to please, and not especially difficult to train. And Newfoundlands are known for being patient and kind with children.

Large Rare Dog Breed Mixes

Rare dog breed mixes are, well, rare. It’s just a numbers thing.

If you are considering adopting a dog you KNOW has a large rare breed in its background, find out what about the rare breed makes it rare in your area. Then you can consider whether the dog could be a good fit for your situation.

If your situation turns out to be well suited to a rare breed, and you have a large-sized space in your home and heart, reach out to breeders and owners to find out more about what these dogs are like. The right person and dog will bring each other many years of joy.

A lot of rare large dog breeds have two things in common: They are rare for a reason, and they are large for a reason.

Stay with me here; I’m serious.

Often a breed is rare because it needs a specialized set of conditions to thrive: A copious amount of exercise every day to prevent destructive behaviors, perhaps, or near-constant human companionship to prevent howling and distress. Assertive breeds might need experienced owners; standoffish breeds might need five-star socialization. Shedders and droolers might need unfussy housekeepers. Size is usually a magnifier: A large and drooly dog will produce much more drool than a small and drooly one. Temperament concerns are much more pressing with a 150-pound dog than with a 15-pound one.

The same traits that make a large dog breed rare in America also tend to make it rare in other Western countries, like Canada and Great Britain. But while rare breeds might not be suitable for a wide variety of homes, where they do suit, they can make wonderful companions, athletes, or working dogs. Let’s take a look at some rare large dog breeds in America, and what kinds of living situations might be great for them.

Large White Flock Guarding Breeds

A lot of rare, large, white dog breeds are flock guards. Many of the rare dog breeds in this group are extra large. As a general rule, flock guards are the essence of “large for a reason” and “rare for a reason:” Their substantial size helps them protect flocks against predators. So, sure, they may be indispensable for raising alpacas. But how many pet households are up for an animal bred to fight off wolves? Not a lot, and that’s why they’re rare.

Backgrounds and temperaments within this group vary, and some flock guardians have found a place in American homes and farms. The Great Pyrenees, for example, can make a calm, self-assured pet for experienced owners ready for a large dog. But most flock guarding breeds are rare in the United States. They need a flock to guard, and there simply is not a strong enough demand for their services to make them populous here.

Rare flock guarding breeds not recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) include:

  • Akbash: At 75 to 140 pounds, this Turkish livestock guardian is an imposing dog. He is generally low-energy but said to “sleep with one eye open.”
  • Bucovina Shepherd Dog: A Romanian flock guard that ranges from 110 to 200 pounds; dogs can be white with patches of grey, black, or black with red-fawn reflections. Bucovinas are strongly mistrustful of people they don’t know.
  • Kuchi, aka Afghan Shepherd: A fierce, high-stamina, independent livestock guardian weighing 85 to 175 pounds. Not well suited for life as a pet in the West.
  • Maremma Sheepdog: A large, white Italian flock guard averaging 66 to 100 pounds. A superb livestock and farm guard, but the breed club does not recommend it as a pet.
  • Polish Tatra Sheepdog: Mature dogs weigh between 80 and 130 pounds. They have an imposing bark, and they’ll bark at anything they find suspicious. (That’s a big dog with a lot of barking.)

Special considerations: Livestock guardians are bred to protect their flocks without checking in with a person. While this trait is fantastic on the steppes, mountains, and in the deserts where these dogs originated, it is an enormous potential liability in more populous settings. The meter reader, the UPS driver, the propane delivery person, the plumber, Aunt Edna, and the people coming over for dinner each represent an opportunity for a large livestock guarding dog’s judgment to differ from yours—and he won’t be wondering what your opinion is. (Or, for that matter, what your liability insurance is like.)

Protection comes naturally to these dogs, but training for anything else can be slow going. Patience and persistence are key.

Good for: Generally, guarding flocks. There are easier breeds for other purposes.

Otterhounds

The huge and hilarious Otterhound is one of the rarest dog breeds in the world. With a population of fewer than 800, the Otterhound is rarer than the Giant Panda.

Otterhounds were developed in 12th century England to help control the population of otters, which preyed on fish in stocked ponds. Weighing in between 80 and 115 pounds, the Otterhound is a rare and extra-large dog breed. (Their size is one factor that keeps them rare.)

But while their size fills the house with dog, it’s their personality that fills the house with laughter. The breed standard calls for Otterhounds to be “amiable, boisterous and even tempered” dogs. The nasally gifted, friendly, and even-keeled Otterhound is well suited for people interested in tracking, Search and Rescue, therapy work, or simply a shaggy, clownish, intelligent companion.

Special considerations: As scent hounds, these dogs will often experience nasal-related deafness when let off leash, so a fenced area for exercise is a must. Otterhounds love water and will sometimes submerge their entire heads to drink—even in a bowl. (You’ll need some towels.) Their size makes early training a must, and training Otterhounds requires a confident, patient, and positive touch. They can be both stubborn and sensitive. But when training is fun and they are praised for their good work, these dogs’ class-clown personalities truly shine.

Good for: Experienced dog owners who love to laugh, have room for a large dog, and also have access to (ohboyohboyohboy) water.

Bergamasco Sheepdogs

This rare herding breed is intelligent, gentle, and self-sufficient. Bergamascos typically weigh about 55 to 85 pounds.

If you own a Bergamasco, though, you won’t be fielding a lot of questions about his temperament and size. People will be asking you about his coat. Some call the Bergamasco “the shaggiest dog in the world.” His coat drapes in flat mats or locks—slightly different from the cords on a Komondor or Puli, which are round.

Special considerations: Bergamasco puppies are born with typical canine hair coats. At about one year, the hair type that can form locks starts to grow in. At that stage, you must spend a few hours separating the coat into mats. After that, the coat requires little maintenance—it doesn’t shed, and no brushing or clipping is required.

The AKC recognized Bergamascos in 2015; their popularity in this country is growing. But they still rank in the bottom ten AKC breeds for popularity.

Good for: Experienced owners prepared to socialize and train a large dog with his own thoughts. (Fans of instant and unquestioning obedience should look elsewhere.) With proper socialization, Bergamascos tend to get along well with kids and other pets.

Newfoundlands

Newfoundlands are indeed large—they weigh between 100 and 150 pounds—but they are not rare. In fact, they fall in the top 25 percent in popularity among AKC breeds. They are probably among the least rare large black dog breeds. But confusion persists about “rare types of Newfoundland.”

The So-Called Rare Newfoundland Dog Breed

People wondering about rare Newfoundlands are usually thinking of one of two things: Landseers, or an Internet hoax about bear hunting.

The AKC recognizes the Landseer as a Newfoundland with a black and white coat. But the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), an international confederation of kennel clubs, recognizes the Landseer as its own breed with a slightly different coat structure than the Newfoundland. So whether the Landseer is a type of Newfoundland or its own breed depends on whom you ask.

Now to the bear hunting. Every so often a picture makes the rounds of “a rare type of Newfoundland bred to hunt bears.” In the picture, forced perspective makes the dog—a Newfoundland—look enormous and the person standing next to it look small. The dog is elevated on an exam table, and is so far in the foreground its front feet aren’t visible in the photo. The person is much farther from the camera, by the dog’s back hip.

Newfoundlands are gentle giants bred for water work. According to the breed standard, “sweetness of temperament” is the single most important trait of the breed. The idea of repurposing Newfies to hunt bears is puzzling and laughable.

Special considerations:  Newfs are giant, voluminous of coat, and deeply muzzled (which leads to plenty of drool, especially in the heat).

Good for: Fairly active people ready for an extra-large companion. Newfies need daily exercise, and their size makes training a must. But they are affectionate, eager to please, and not especially difficult to train. And Newfoundlands are known for being patient and kind with children.

Large Rare Dog Breed Mixes

Rare dog breed mixes are, well, rare. It’s just a numbers thing.

If you are considering adopting a dog you KNOW has a large rare breed in its background, find out what about the rare breed makes it rare in your area. Then you can consider whether the dog could be a good fit for your situation.

If your situation turns out to be well suited to a rare breed, and you have a large-sized space in your home and heart, reach out to breeders and owners to find out more about what these dogs are like. The right person and dog will bring each other many years of joy.

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6 Natural Beauty Tips for Women

Woman putting makeup

If you’re like most women, you prefer not to leave the house without first putting on your makeup. And when it comes to makeup necessities, 37% of women rank mascara as the one cosmetic item they’d never leave the house without putting on. It’s no secret that eye makeup can be a great way to make your eyes stand out, but if you’re wearing it regularly, there are some things you need to know to protect your eye health.

Remove Eye Makeup Nightly

Use a gentle makeup remover to take off your eye makeup before you go to bed. Not only will this help you keep mascara and eyeliner smears off your pillows, but it’ll also protect your eyes from irritation.

Never Apply Liner to Your Waterline

When you apply eyeliner, remember that it should always go on the eyelid. Eyeliner (or any cosmetic product) should never be applied below the eyelid or along the waterline of the eye, as this puts the product directly in contact with your eye and can lead to serious irritation.

Clean Eye Shadow Brushes Regularly

Over time, those eye shadow and brow brushes can get pretty nasty and can even harbor some dangerous bacteria. Invest in a quality makeup brush cleaner and take the time to use it at least once a week on all your brushes. Doing so will help protect your eyes from possible infection and ensure the best eye makeup application.

Wash Your Hands Before Applying

Before you bust out your makeup bag, it’s always a good idea to wash your hands. This is especially important if you’ll be applying any makeup directly with your hands (such as a BB cream or even fake eyelashes). Otherwise, who knows what kinds of bacteria you’ll be spreading to your face and eyes by not washing your hands.

Avoid Glittery Eye Cosmetics

Glittery and shimmery eye shadows can be appealing, especially when you want to pull off a dramatic look that’ll draw attention to your eyes. Unfortunately, products with glitter and shimmer in them can also be the most dangerous to have around your eyes. Small pieces of glitter found in these eye shadows can easily get into the eye and scratch the corneas or cause other eye injuries that can be quite serious. Instead, stick to matte eye shadows, many of which can have a glimmery appearance when applied correctly.

Never Share Your Eye Makeup

The best friend forgot her eyeliner and wants to borrow yours? It might seem harmless enough, but it doesn’t take much to spread a bacterial infection by sharing eye makeup or even eye makeup brushes. If you decide to let your friend use your makeup, let her keep it and pick up a new one instead. Or better yet, keep backup supplies on-hand for these exact situations.

Give Your Eyes a Break Now and Then

Many women feel like they can’t even leave the house without at least putting on some eyeliner and/or mascara, but it’s good to give your eyes a break every once in a while. If you’ve got even one day a week where you (mostly) lounge at home and don’t spend a lot of time out in public, consider going the day without wearing any makeup at all. Instead, use this day to:

Give yourself an at-home facial
Moisturize and exfoliate
Perform other self-care activities

Your body will thank you, and it’ll be nice to get a break from applying makeup!

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Do You Really Need a Skin Care Routine?

Girl in the mirror putting makeup

 

 

 

Understanding Skin Care for Your Daily Health

The phrase skin care brings to mind two things: dry skin and a long aisle of beauty products at your local drugstore. But it’s more than a surface-level concern. While a skincare routine may sound like high maintenance, in reality, the steps for healthy skin are not only necessary, they’re easy to implement too.

“Investing early in the health of your skin, with regular skin care, will not only better protect it from the harsh effects of winter, but also keep you looking and feeling your best throughout the year,” says a dermatologist with Northwestern Medicine. “The key to skin resiliency is knowing your skin and treating it well.”

First, you’ll want to take into account your skin type. The primary skin types are dry, oily or combination and while your skin may get drier or oilier based on the season, the majority of the time it should be relatively consistent.

What Belongs in Your Skin Care Cabinet

Next, you should know what makes up a healthy skin routine. Which is to say, what types of products do you really need to keep your skin healthy and clean?

Cleanser
Cleanser is what you’ll use to wash your face and it’s important to use a product intended for your face – not just whatever bar or body wash you have lying around. You’ll want to wash your face gently and take care not to scrub too hard. Then, rinse with warm water, because hot water removes natural oils and causes your skin to become dehydrated.Finding the right cleanser for you may be a process of trial and error. If you have dry skin, you’ll want to use one without alcohol or fragrance. If your skin tends to be oily, you’ll want to look for an oil-free option, and you may want to consider using a toner as well.

Toner
Toner is applied after washing your face and can smooth, soften and calm skin. Toners often contain ingredients that replenish and restore nutrients to your skin and can diminish redness and dry patches.

Moisturizer
Like cleansers, moisturizers are for everyone and should be used every time you wash your face. And like cleansers, a little trial and error is totally normal when you’re looking for the right one – oily skin, for example, can benefit from lightweight, oil-free or gel products. Moisturizers prevent your skin from drying out, leaving your skin hydrated and smooth. They are most effective when applied while your skin is slightly damp to seal in moisture.

Sunscreen
Some moisturizers include SPF, but it doesn’t hurt to double up with sunscreen as well – particularly if your moisturizer has an SPF below 30. By now, you should know the lines well: Apply sunscreen every day, even when it’s gray or cold, even when you’re covered up. When you are exposed, reapply every two hours. Make sure your sunscreen protects against both UVA and UVB rays. If skin cancer and sun damage aren’t enough to convince you, UV exposure is also the number one cause of wrinkles, uneven skin tone, loss of firmness and aging signs.

Exfoliation
Here’s a product you might not need or want to apply every day. If you have dry skin, including winter-air-induced dry skin, you may exfoliate more than usual, but you should still keep it to once or twice a week – max. Exfoliation can be used after cleanser but before moisturizer, as it helps to removes flaky skin by increasing skin cell turnover. The benefits are real – removing dead skin and buildup for smoother skin and clearer pores – but most dermatologists will recommend chemical exfoliants over scrubs to prevent damage to the protective barrier of your skin.

Serum
Another optional addition to your skin care routine, serums contain ingredients like antioxidants or retinol that support skin health in a number of ways, such as calming redness and improving texture and firmness.

When You Should Use What

The easiest way to remember when you should be doing what for your skin is to think of it like this: Morning skincare should focus on prevention and protection for the day and your nighttime routine should focus on cleansing and repair.

Most people will only need to really wash their face once a day. In the morning, rinsing with warm water before applying moisturizer and sunscreen should suffice, while at night, after a full day of exposure and damage, more dedicated care is recommended. As such, before bed, you should wash your face with a cleanser to remove dirt and makeup then use toner, exfoliant and serums if you so choose. In any case, always end with moisturizing.

Regardless of the time of day, you should also always wash your face after working out or working up a sweat, as sweat can clog pores and make acne worse. As a rule, remember to take your makeup off before bed and resist picking at your skin.

What About the Weather

Season’s change can bring about adjustments to your skincare and maybe the products you use, but it shouldn’t require any major overhaul of your routine.

In the winter, it’s all about extra moisturizing. The cold weather contributes to dryness (as does the heat from radiators) and wind can chap skin too. You may want to shift to a more moisturizing cleanser to supplement your daily moisturizer.

Conversely, in the summer, your skin may be oilier and you can turn to an oil-free cleanser. Sunscreen is a staple for all seasons, but it’s fair to adjust to a lighter weight for daily use in the summer months – just be sure to bring out the heavy-duty stuff for any concentrated time spent in the sun.

Furthermore, remember you don’t have to wait for the leaves to fall or the snow to melt to switch up your skincare routine. If your skin changes – due to the environment, hormones or anything else – it’s totally fair to adjust your routine in kind. A dermatologist is a great resource if you struggle to get a handle on your skin care. They can help suggest drugstore products, prescribe more serious help and provide lifestyle advice to help address other factors that may be affecting your skin.

Adjusting for Age

Good skin care is essential at any age and healthy habits in your 20s and 30s can strengthen and prepare your skin for the effects of aging down the road. Skin has strong collagen and elastic production in your 20s and 30s. Cleanser and SPF moisturizer will be fixtures in your routine, and some dermatologists may recommend an over-the-counter retinol product or antioxidant serum as a preventative measure to stimulate collagen production. While you may associate collagen with keeping skin looking plump, it also gives skin its strength and structure and plays a role in the replacement of dead skin cells.

As women enter the period before menopause (perimenopause) and menopause, their hormones are in flux and the natural forms of aging begin to kick in. While serums and creams that support collagen production may be added to their skin care arsenal, the foundation will remain a gentle cleanser and a strong moisturizer.

Many factors can affect your skin and your skin – as your largest organ and first line of health defense – deserves to be protected. When considering skin care, you’ll want to be aware of your environment and daily health, such as diet, stress and fitness. Still, at the end of the day, a skin care routine involving cleanser and moisturizer can go a long way.

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14 Makeup Tips You Have To Know

Girl with makeup tools
 

 

 

Take a look at your makeup arsenal and think of all the masterpieces you can create with it. What if we tell you that your eyeshadow palette can be used for a lot more than just adding color to the eyelids? Or, let you in on some tricks that would make sure that your cat eyes and wings are on fleek every single time? It doesn’t matter if you are a beginner or a pro at makeup, tips and hacks always come in handy. It is smart to get your money’s worth by using the same product in multiple ways. Here are 14 makeup tips that will make sure you look your best at all times.

 

Makeup Tips To Apply Primer

1. Make Sure Your Primer Complements Your Foundation.

 

Whether oil or water, your primer and foundation should share the same base; otherwise, they will repel each other or just slide off your face, making it difficult to blend.

2. Make Crow’s Feet Disappear.

Dabbing a little amount of primer around your eyes dramatically minimizes the appearance of crow’s feet.

Makeup Tips For Applying Foundation
3. Right Application For Right Coverage.

While putting your foundation on, if you want sheer coverage, use your fingers. But, if you want a full coverage, use a foundation brush.

 

4. Avoid Peach Fuzz.

Always apply foundation using downward strokes. Most of us have a thin layer of hair on our face, and applying foundation in an upward stroke will make the hair strands stand out. Looking fresh and pink like a peach may be your goal, but highlighting your peach fuzz definitely shouldn’t be.

Makeup Tips For Applying Concealer
5. Create A Conical Shape.

Most of us are used to applying concealer in a semi-circular pattern under our eyes to reduce the appearance of the bags or puffiness. However, for best results, apply the concealer in a conical pattern under the eyes and extend it to almost where your nose ends. It not only does a better job at concealing because it is easy to blend, but it also helps in contouring the sides of your nose.

6. DIY Color Correcting Palette

You probably, by now, have heard about the wonder called color correcting palette. These concealers of various hues are used to cancel out flaws on your face. For example, a green concealer is used for canceling out any redness, lavender for yellow-toned discoloration, peach for bruises or blue-toned under-eye circles, etc. But if you suddenly find yourself without your color correction palette or just want to save money, just mix an eyeshadow of the color you want your concealer to be with your normal concealer – and voila! You have your smart and cheap color corrector concealer palette.

7. Know The Important Focal Points.

This hack is for those days when you are running late or just feeling too lazy to apply your concealer properly. Just dab on a little concealer, preferably with a brush, under your eyes, on the corners of your mouth, and near your nose, and you are good to go.

Face Powder Application Tips
8. Know The Correct Function.

There are mainly two types of face powder – loose powder and pressed powder, and both come in dewy and matte finishes. It is important to know which one to use for what purpose. Loose powder is basically used to set the makeup in place and make it long-lasting. Though it comes in both tinted and translucent forms, it is best to use the colorless translucent one for setting the makeup as it will not disturb the color of your foundation and concealer. Pressed powder, however, is best suited for touch-ups on the go. Also, a dewy finish gives a glowing appearance to the skin, and a matte one provides a porcelain look with fine textures.

9. Choose The Right Brush.

The result of any makeup product largely depends on the applicator, and this is especially true for powders. Always use the fluffiest brush you can find to put your powder on for best results.

Makeup Tips To Apply Blush
10. Blush Under Foundation.

This is also a clever way of reversing the order of applying the product to get smashing results. All you have to do is apply the blush first and then apply the foundation over it. The end result looks like you are glowing naturally from within.

11. Use A Tissue Paper For Blotting.

Instead of blotting your blush with a powder, use tissue paper. Press it lightly over the blush after application and finish off with your makeup sponge or beauty blender for that perfect flush of color on your cheeks.

12. Be Careful With Shimmery Blushes.

It is tricky to pull off a shimmery blush perfectly. In fact, it is a good idea to skip shimmery blushes altogether if you have large pores, pimples or other symptoms of troubled skin.

Makeup Tips To Apply Bronzer
13. Apply In A Triangular Fashion For Better Blending.

Though it’s a common practice to apply bronzer with a fluffy brush on the hollow of your cheeks, it is a better idea to draw two inverted triangles on your cheeks with a bronzer. Blend it out, and you will have the perfectly done bronzer that will give you perfectly chiseled features.

14. DIY Bronzer.

If you are in the mood for trying out something fun, try making your own bronzer. All you need are a few items that are already sitting on your kitchen shelf. Take some cinnamon powder, cocoa powder, some nutmeg powder, and mix with some cornstarch – and there you have your bronzer. If you are a fan of makeup with natural ingredients or want to keep chemicals completely at bay, it doesn’t get any more natural than this.